Urinary tract health in cats

If you’ve noticed that your pet is having problems going to the toilet, it may be down to Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (FLUTD). This is a broad term that’s used to describe a number of urinary tract conditions that affect cats’ bladders and urethras.
kitten playing with toilet paper
kitten playing with toilet paper
kitten playing with toilet paper

The most common condition results in inflammation of the bladder (cat cystitis) and, in male cats, similar symptoms accompanied with an obstruction of the urethra (the tube from the bladder to the outside). This condition, known as idiopathic cat cystitis, is unfortunately both common and complex and, as symptoms can be medical and/or behavioural, you won’t always know exactly what’s triggered it.

Potential causes of feline urinary problems

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Idiopathic cat cystitis

Idiopathic cat cystitis, the most common type of FLUTD, causes an inflammation in the bladder. Concentrated urine (common in cats), stress and damage to the lining of the bladder are all thought to contribute to the problem. Although both male and female cats can get cat cystitis, tom cats have a narrower and longer urethra which can become blocked by leaked proteins and blood - this is a life-threatening complication which means the cat physically cannot urinate.

Female vet holding a poorly cat

Bladder stones

Bladder stones are a less common problem in cats, but will cause similar symptoms to cat cystitis and can also cause a blockage of the urethra.

Anatomical abnormalities

If your cat has been in an accident, or was born was with any physical problems, then any resulting damage to their bladder or urethra could cause lower urinary tract problems.

Bacterial infection

Bacterial infection is a more unusual cause of Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease in cats with no other health problems, although some cats with conditions like diabetes or kidney disease are generally more prone to infection.

Age or weight-related problems

FLUTD is most frequently found in middle-aged, overweight cats that live a sedentary indoor life and only use a litter tray.

Signs of urinary problems in cats

Signs to look out for in your cat include:

  • Going in and out of their litter tray repeatedly.
  • Straining to go to the toilet.
  • Pain when urinating (usually characterised by crying out when going to the toilet).
  • Licking their genital area a lot more than usual.
  • Blood in their urine.
  • Producing little or no urine after straining.
  • Loss of bladder control (although this is rare).
Cat drinking outside

As Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease can be a very serious and life-threatening condition, particularly in male cats, see your vet straight away if you spot any of the above signs.

Diagnosing cat cystitis

Once your vet has run a few tests to rule out other causes, they’re most likely to diagnose your cat’s condition as idiopathic cat cystitis. They may still do blood tests, just to make sure your cat doesn’t have any underlying problems (e.g. with their kidneys) and take a urine sample. If further confirmation is needed, your vet may want to take x-rays and use an ultrasound to get a clearer picture of your cat’s bladder and urethra.

Treating feline urinary problems

Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (FLUTD), and particularly idiopathic cat cystitis, can be tricky to treat and takes lots of patience and time, as well as possible help from a feline veterinary specialist or behaviourist, but the good news is that with veterinary help, many cats with urinary problems go on to have normal and happy lives.

Treatment for idiopathic cat cystitis usually takes the form of:

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Pain relief

FLUTD is often quite uncomfortable for your cat, and as pain can also cause the urethra to narrow further, pain relief is often prescribed.


Some drugs can be used to relax the urethra in male cats to try and prevent or treat blockages. Medication may also be recommended by your vet to improve your cat’s bladder wall lining.

Stress reduction

Stress is known to play a part in idiopathic cat cystitis so speak to your vet about anything that you think could be causing your cat stress, and how it can be avoided. Your vet might recommend speaking to a veterinary behaviourist or suggest synthetic pheromone treatments to help with any anxiety your cat might be feeling.

Reduction in the concentration of the urine

It’s extremely important that your cat eats a good PH balanced diet and drinks plenty of water. If your cat currently has a dry food diet, try switching them to wet food. If they’re already eating wet food, add a little water or give them ‘soups’ of tuna or chicken in plenty of water (without salt).

Increased water intake

Encourage your cat to drink more water by giving them plenty of sources of water, from cat water fountains to wide-brimmed bowls, in several locations inside and outside the house. Fill their water bowls right to the top so they don’t have to put their head deep into the bowl to drink.

If your cat has a blockage in their urethra, your vet will need to act quickly to remove the blockage and possibly place a catheter (tube) into the urethra to allow the urine to pass.

Bladder stones may need to be removed surgically and followed up, in some cases, with a diet change.

Whatever the cause of the cat urinary tract infection, your vet should soon be able to prescribe a treatment to get your pet to their usual vibrant, happy selves again.


If you’d like more information on urinary tract health for cats, or have any other queries, contact our PETCARE EXPERT TEAM